Simulation Analyses of Two On-Ramp Lane Arrangements
Journal article, 2020
Ramps are vital pieces of infrastructure connecting city traffic networks to freeways. The performance of a ramp is to some extent determined by the on-ramp lane arrangement. In this paper, our primary aim is to evaluate the performance in terms of travel time and vehicle emissions for two on-ramp lane arrangements: added lane and zip merging. We estimate the travel time and CO2 emissions on the basis of the speed, and acceleration of vehicles in accordance with the improved comprehensive modal emission model (CMEM), and then analyse the impacts of traffic volume and heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) on travel time and emissions. The impacts of main road traffic flow on travel time and emissions for the two on-ramp lane arrangements are analysed under scenarios with traffic volumes of 800, 1 000, 1 200, 1 400, 1 600 and 1 800 vehs/h/lane. Meanwhile, the relationships between travel time, emissions and various proportions of HGVs (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) for both on-ramp lane arrangements are evaluated as well. We eventually present emission contour charts for the two on-ramp lane arrangements based on the possible combinations of traffic volumes and HGV percentages.
On-ramp lane arrangement
heavy goods vehicles (HGVs)
Micro-traffic simulation model
CO emissions 2
comprehensive modal emission model (CMEM)