Making Mobility-as-a-Service: Towards Governance Principles and Pathways
Doctoral thesis, 2020
Conceptualizing MaaS developments as an innovation process that might contribute to a sustainability transition, this thesis sets out to improve the understanding of how public sector actors can facilitate action in the early phases and steer the innovation trajectory towards addressing long-term sustainability goals. The public transport authority in Västra Götaland (Sweden), and its attempts to facilitate MaaS developments, is used as a starting point. Three of its MaaS-related activities between 2016 and 2019 are analyzed based on participatory observation and stakeholder interviews. Additionally, the thesis draws on two qualitative studies of MaaS developments situated in Finland and Australia.
The thesis’ contribution to the research field of MaaS is threefold. Firstly, it explores expectations of MaaS. A majority of the actors involved in the studied MaaS developments reckoned that MaaS will support a modal shift away from private car use. Still, while some actors were confident that this will lower the negative externalities of personal mobility systems, others feared that it will reinforce social and environmental problems. Of note is that none of these views are yet backed by any extensive empirical evidence, the shortage of which is an ongoing challenge for MaaS developments. Secondly, the thesis identifies institutional factors that shape MaaS developments. The studied developments were enabled by novel information technologies and motivated by the need to lessen the negative impacts of private cars. Yet, the developments brought together actors that had not previously collaborated and challenged models of collaboration, business, and customer relations, which made them contingent on complex modifications within and beyond personal mobility systems. Thirdly, the thesis examines how the public sector governs MaaS developments. The governance approaches varied across Sweden, Finland, and Australia in terms of leading actors, methods of intervention, and underlying motivations, but were yet to deliver much tangible results for citizens in all three countries.
Based on these findings, the thesis proposes principles and pathways for MaaS governance. The principles advocate a broad set of activities to address all the institutional factors that impede MaaS developments. In contrast to the observed governance approaches, this includes activities aimed at strengthening mobility services and active mobility, and at weakening the private car regime. The pathways describe four roles public sector actors can take in MaaS developments – MaaS Promoter, MaaS Partner, MaaS Enabler, and Laissez-Faire – and illustrate how the method(s) of intervention can be adjusted between innovation phases. The principles and pathways thereby provide a comprehensive tool for understanding and enhancing public-private dynamics in MaaS developments.
Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Design and Human Factors
Mobility as a Service: Development scenarios and implications for public transport
Research in Transportation Economics,; Vol. 69(2018)p. 592-599
Public–private innovation: barriers in the case of mobility as a service in West Sweden
Public Management Review,; Vol. 21(2019)p. 116-137
Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland
Research in Transportation Business and Management,; Vol. 27(2018)p. 36-45
Perceived action spaces for public actors in the development of Mobility as a Service
European Transport Research Review,; Vol. 11(2019)
Intermediary MaaS Integrators: A Case Study on Hopes and Fears
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice,; Vol. 31(2020)p. 163-177
Towards a framework for Mobility-as-a-Service policies
Transport Policy,; Vol. 89(2020)p. 54-65
Adopting Mobility-as-a-Service: An empirical analysis of end-users’ experiences
ICoMaaS 2019,; (2019)p. 86-98
Paper in proceedings
The thesis explores how involved actors expect MaaS to affect transport, identifies institutional factors that drive and hinder MaaS developments, and examines how public sector activities influence the development processes. Based on these findings, the thesis proposes a set of principle activities for public sector actors that want to promote and steer MaaS developments. Broadly, to pave the way for MaaS, the public sector must directly assist MaaS developments in multiple ways, as well as address the webs of tangible and intangible factors that favor private cars and disfavor mobility services, cycling, and walking. The thesis moreover outlines four roles that public sector actors can take in relation to MaaS developments: MaaS Promoter, MaaS Partner, MaaS Enabler, and Laissez-Faire. The principles and roles can thereby support policymakers in drafting and analyzing MaaS governance strategies.
Institutional Frameworks for Integrated Mobility Services in future cities - IRIMS
VINNOVA, 2015-10-15 -- 2018-02-22.
Combined Mobility Roadmap Sweden - KOMPIS
VINNOVA, 2017-05-04 -- 2020-12-31.
Areas of Advance
Information and Communication Technology
Innovation and entrepreneurship
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Transport Systems and Logistics
Public Administration Studies
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie: 4764
Chalmers University of Technology
Opponent: Professor Glenn Lyons, UWE Bristol, United Kingdom