Chemical substitution with a life cycle perspective: The case of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in durable water repellents
Doctoral thesis, 2020
This research explored the applicability of life cycle assessment (LCA) for the provision of a life cycle perspective in chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). To improve the relevance of LCA in the CAA of DWR alternatives, contributions were made to the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of (eco)toxicity, and characterisation factors were calculated (Papers II and III). Case study results (Paper IV), together with a literature review (Paper V), showed that LCA can provide relevant information for CAAs. Potential problem-shifting was identified between DWR alternatives, and the scenario assessment in the LCA provided useful input to the CAA. The hazard assessment (Paper I) together with the LCA support the recommendation to phase-out all non-essential use of PFASs in DWR.
Performing such a phase-out through regulation can be a slow process. The potential to accelerate a phase-out by motivating consumers to voluntary substitution was investigated using a web-survey experiment. This study (Paper VI) found that Swedish readiness to voluntarily act to substitute hazardous fluorinated chemicals is already high and that detailed information on the hazards associated with these chemicals can raise this potential even higher.
The present research strengthens the potential for LCA to be used in CAA and identifies its limitations. The work will help policy makers and analysts who are faced with challenges such as prioritising regulatory and design interventions for substitution and shaping information campaigns to encourage voluntary substitution.
Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Environmental Systems Analysis
Properties, performance and associated hazards of state-of-the-art durable water repellent (DWR) chemistry for textile finishing
Environment International,; Vol. 91(2016)p. 251-264
USEtox characterisation factors for textile chemicals based on a transparent data source selection strategy
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment,; Vol. 23(2018)p. 890-903
An (Eco)Toxicity Life Cycle Impact Assessment Framework for Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances
Environmental Science & Technology,; Vol. 54(2020)p. 6224-6234
Hanna Holmquist, Sandra Roos, Steffen Schellenberger, Christina Jönsson and Gregory M. Peters. Life cycle assessment to support substitution of hazardous highly fluorinated chemicals in durable water repellents on outdoor garments
Review of Environmental Assessment Case Studies Blending Elements of Risk Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Science & Technology,; Vol. 49(2015)p. 13083-13093
How information about hazardous fluorinated substances increases willingness-to-pay for alternative outdoor garments: A Swedish survey experiment
Journal of Cleaner Production,; Vol. 202(2018)p. 130-138
Performing such a phase-out through regulation can be a slow process and the potential to accelerate it was investigated in a Swedish survey experiment. The survey showed that Swedish readiness to voluntarily act to substitute hazardous PFASs is already high and that detailed information on the hazards associated with these chemicals can raise this potential even higher.
The present research will help stakeholders who are faced with challenges such as prioritising regulatory and design interventions for substitution and shaping information campaigns to encourage voluntary substitution.
Substitution in Practice of Prioritised Fluorinated Chemicals to Eliminate Diffuse Sources (SUPFES)
Formas, 2013-01-01 -- 2017-12-31.
Stockholms läns landsting, 2017-01-01 -- 2020-12-31.
Other Environmental Engineering
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie: 4766
Chalmers University of Technology
Opponent: Professor Matthew MacLeod, Stockholm University