Verification of Radiative Transfer Schemes for the EHT
Journal article, 2020

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration has recently produced the first resolved images of the central supermassive black hole in the giant elliptical galaxy M87. Here we report on tests of the consistency and accuracy of the general relativistic radiative transfer codes used within the collaboration to model M87∗ and Sgr A∗. We compare and evaluate (1) deflection angles for equatorial null geodesics in a Kerr spacetime; (2) images calculated from a series of simple, parameterized matter distributions in the Kerr metric using simplified emissivities and absorptivities; (3) for a subset of codes, images calculated from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations using different realistic synchrotron emissivities and absorptivities; (4) observables for the 2017 configuration of EHT, including visibility amplitudes and closure phases. The error in total flux is of order 1% when the codes are run with production numerical parameters. The dominant source of discrepancies for small camera distances is the location and detailed setup of the software "camera"that each code uses to produce synthetic images. We find that when numerical parameters are suitably chosen and the camera is sufficiently far away the images converge and that for given transfer coefficients, numerical uncertainties are unlikely to limit parameter estimation for the current generation of EHT observations. The purpose of this paper is to describe a verification and comparison of EHT radiative transfer codes. It is not to verify EHT models more generally.

Author

Ralph P. Eatough

Max Planck Society

R. Gold

University of Southern Denmark

Avery E. Broderick

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Ziri Younsi

Goethe University Frankfurt

Christian M. Fromm

Goethe University Frankfurt

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

M. Mościbrodzka

Radboud University

Hung-Yi Pu

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud University

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud University

Jason Dexter

University of Colorado at Boulder

David Ball

University of Arizona

Chi Kwan Chan

University of Arizona

Tomohisa Kawashima

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Yosuke Mizuno

Goethe University Frankfurt

Bart Ripperda

Simons Foundation

Kazunori Akiyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Antxon Alberdi

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

Walter Alef

Max Planck Society

K. Asada

Academia Sinica

R. Azulay

Max Planck Society

A. K. Baczko

Max Planck Society

Mislav Baloković

Harvard University

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard University

W. Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

K. L. Bouman

Harvard University

G. C. Bower

Academia Sinica

M. Bremer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

C. D. Brinkerink

Radboud University

Roger Brissenden

Harvard University

Silke Britzen

Max Planck Society

D. Broguière

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Do Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

A. Chael

Princeton University

Koushik Chatterjee

University of Amsterdam

S. Chatterjee

Cornell University

Ming-Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

I. Cho

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

University of Arizona

John Conway

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

G. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Yuzhu Cui

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Goethe University Frankfurt

R. P. Deane

University of Pretoria

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Max Planck Society

S. Doeleman

Harvard University

Ralph P. Eatough

Max Planck Society

H.D. Falcke

Radboud University

V. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

R. Fraga-Encinas

Radboud University

Bill Freeman

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

P. Friberg

East Asian Observatory

J. L. Gomez

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Roberto Garcia

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

C. Goddi

Radboud University

Minfeng Gu

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

M. Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

K. Hada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R. Hesper

University of Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

M. Honma

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Chih Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

D. Hughes

National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

S. Issaoun

Radboud University

David J. James

Harvard University

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Michael Janssen

Radboud University

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales

Max Planck Society

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard University

S.G. Jorstad

Boston University

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Mansour Karami

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

R. Karuppusamy

Max Planck Society

G. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

M. M. Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Jae-Young Kim

Max Planck Society

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

M. Kino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

M.A. Kramer

Max Planck Society

C. Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

T.P. Krichbaum

Max Planck Society

Cheng-Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yan Rong Li

Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

R. Lico

Max Planck Society

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory, Observation Support

Kuo Liu

Max Planck Society

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Istituto di Radioastronomia

Wen-Ping Lo

Academia Sinica

A. P. Lobanov

Max Planck Society

L. Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R.S. Lu

Max Planck Society

N. R. Macdonald

Max Planck Society

S. Markoff

University of Amsterdam

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

D. P. Marrone

University of Arizona

A. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Universitat de Valencia

S. Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

University of Arizona

K. Menten

Max Planck Society

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

James M. Moran

Harvard University

Kotaro Moriyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

C. Müller

Radboud University

H. Nagai

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Masanori Nakamura

Academia Sinica

N. M. Nagar

University of Concepcion

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard University

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

Rhodes University

R. Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

A. Noutsos

Max Planck Society

Hiroki Okino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

G.N. Ortiz-León

Max Planck Society

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Feryal zel

University of Arizona

Daniel C.M. Palumbo

Harvard University

Jongho Park

Academia Sinica

N. Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

U. L. Pen

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard University

Richard L. Plambeck

University of California

Vincent Piétu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Oliver Porth

Goethe University Frankfurt

Jorge A. Preciado-López

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

University of Concepcion

R. Rao

Academia Sinica

M.G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard University

Luciano Rezzolla

Goethe University Frankfurt

F. Roelofs

Radboud University

A.E.E. Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Eduardo Ros

Max Planck Society

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

H. Rottmann

Max Planck Society

A. Roy

Max Planck Society

C. Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kazi L.J. Rygl

Istituto di Radioastronomia

S. Sanchez

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

David Sánchez-Arguelles

National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics

Mahito Sasada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

T. Savolainen

Max Planck Society

K. Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

F. P. Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

Lijing Shao

Max Planck Society

Zhi Qiang Shen

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

B. W. Sohn

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Paul Tiede

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

R. P. J. Tilanus

Radboud University

M. Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Pablo Torne

Max Planck Society

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

Thalia Traianou

Max Planck Society

S. Trippe

Seoul National University

Shuichiro Tsuda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

H. J. van Langevelde

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

I. van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud University

Jan Wagner

Max Planck Society

John Wardle

Brandeis University

Norbert Wex

Max Planck Society

J. Weintroub

Harvard University

Robert Wharton

Max Planck Society

M. Wielgus

Harvard University

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Doosoo Yoon

University of Amsterdam

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

A. Young

Radboud University

Feng Yuan

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

A.J. Zensus

Max Planck Society

G. Y. Zhao

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Shan-Shan Zhao

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Ziyan Zhu

Harvard University

Astrophysical Journal

0004-637X (ISSN) 1538-4357 (eISSN)

Vol. 897 2 148

Subject Categories

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)

Medical Image Processing

DOI

10.3847/1538-4357/ab96c6

More information

Latest update

10/22/2020