In-nozzle flow and spray characteristics of large two-stroke marine diesel fuel injectors
Journal article, 2020

To further increase efficiency as well as to reduce emissions of large two-stroke marine Diesel engines, the understanding of the fuel injection processes and the resulting spray atomization characteristics is of high importance. The sheer dimensions, the uniflow scavenging design with the central exhaust valve position and the high swirl motion of the charge air is imposing the need for peripheral multiple fuel injector arrangement. The two or three fuel injectors are arranged by 180° resp. 120° and hence, a strongly asymmetrical and eccentrical atomizer design is given as all of the typically five orifices face a similar direction which is defined by the injector position and swirl flow. Experiments have shown that these characteristic nozzle tip bore arrangements lead to a strong spray deflection due to inhomogeneous velocity profiles induced by cavitation inside the orifice. Specifically designed transparent nozzles have been utilized to qualitatively investigate the in-nozzle cavitation flow phenomena. Furthermore, the influence on the subsequent atomization behaviour by simultaneously acquiring the spray morphology has been studied. A simplified transparent one-hole nozzle was used with a matching nozzle tip geometry representative for a large two-stroke marine Diesel engine injector. Fuel pressures of 50 MPa were applied to meet engine realistic injection conditions. Moreover, different degrees of hydro-erosive grinding were applied to the orifices to investigate the effects on the spray morphology with decreasing levels of in-nozzle flow cavitation derived by increasing inlet radii between main nozzle tip bore and orifice.



Marine Diesel engine

In-nozzle flow

Fuel injection


Reto Balz

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Combustion and Propulsion Systems

Winterthur Gas and Diesel Ltd.

Beat von Rotz

Winterthur Gas and Diesel Ltd.

David Sedarsky

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Combustion and Propulsion Systems

Applied Thermal Engineering

1359-4311 (ISSN)

Vol. 180 115809

Subject Categories

Other Mechanical Engineering

Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics

Marine Engineering

Areas of Advance




Chalmers Laboratory of Fluids and Thermal Sciences



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