Adult ADHD screening scores and hospitalization due to pedestrian injuries: a case-control study
Journal article, 2020

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between adult ADHD screening scores and hospitalization due to pedestrian injuries in a sample of Iranian pedestrians. METHODS: Through a case-control study, a case population of 177 pedestrians injured by the vehicles in road traffic crashes were compared with 177 controls who lacked a record of intentional or unintentional injuries enrolled from various wards of Imam Reza University Hospital which is a specialty teaching hospital located in the same city with similar referral level. The cases and controls had an age range of 18-65 years and were matched on gender and age. ADHD symptom profile was assessed using the Persian Self-report Screening Version of the Conner's Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS-S:SV). The association of ADHD screening score and pedestrian injuries was investigated using multiple binary logistic regression to investigate the independent effect of ADHD index score on belonging to case group. Both crude and adjusted odds ratios were reported. RESULTS: Men comprised 86.4% of the study subjects. The crude odds ratios for all the four ADHD subscales to be associated with pedestrian injuries were 1.05, 1.08, and 1.04 for the subscales A (attention deficit), B (hyperactivity/impulsiveness) and ADHD index respectively. However, the association for subscale A was not statistically significant with a borderline p-value. The final multivariate analysis showed that variables associated with pedestrian injuries in the road traffic crashes were ADHD Index score (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12); economic status (including household income and expenditure capacity); educational level and total walking time per 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: Adult ADHD screening score can predict pedestrian injuries leading to hospitalization independently from sex, age, economic status, educational level and pedestrian exposure to traffic environment (average walking time).




Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Case-control studies

ADHD symptoms


Road traffic accidents (RTAs)



Alireza Sadeghpour

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Saber Ghaffari-Fam

Urmia University of Medical Science

Shaker Salarilak

Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch

Mostafa Farahbakhsh

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Robert Ekman

Chalmers, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Building Design

Amin Daemi

Health Management and Economics Research Center

BMC Psychiatry

1471-244X (ISSN)

Vol. 20 1 444

Subject Categories


Forensic Science

Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology





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