Complete transverse stress recovery model for linear shell elements in arbitrarily curved laminates
Journal article, 2020

Out-of-plane failure is common in composite layered materials. Its detection in numerical simulations usually involves a high-level of spatial refinement which may lead to an excessive computational time for large struc-tures. This paper presents a formulation for the recovery of the transverse stresses in conventional linear shell elements based on First-Order Shear Deformation Theory. Starting from the equilibrium equations, the pro-posed formulation allows the calculations to be made for arbitrary curvatures including variable ones. Compared to the Extended-2D method, it has the advantage of including all the contributions from the force and moment derivatives making it reliable in complex load cases. Several examples with different laminates, curvatures and loads are presented. The numerical results confirm the potential of the proposed method to be used both as post-processing tool for conventional models and as an enrichment criterion for adaptive modelling.

Equivalent single-layer (ESL)

Linear shell elements


Transverse stresses

Stress recovery


Pierre M. Daniel

Btechc Barcelona Tech Ctr SL

University of Girona

Johannes Främby

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Material and Computational Mechanics

Martin Fagerström

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Material and Computational Mechanics

Pere Maimi

University of Girona

Composite Structures

0263-8223 (ISSN)

Vol. 252 112675

Subject Categories

Applied Mechanics

Computational Mathematics

Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics



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