Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black Hole
Journal article, 2020

The 2017 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of the central source in M87 have led to the first measurement of the size of a black-hole shadow. This observation offers a new and clean gravitational test of the black-hole metric in the strong-field regime. We show analytically that spacetimes that deviate from the Kerr metric but satisfy weak-field tests can lead to large deviations in the predicted black-hole shadows that are inconsistent with even the current EHT measurements. We use numerical calculations of regular, parametric, non-Kerr metrics to identify the common characteristic among these different parametrizations that control the predicted shadow size. We show that the shadow-size measurements place significant constraints on deviation parameters that control the second post-Newtonian and higher orders of each metric and are, therefore, inaccessible to weak-field tests. The new constraints are complementary to those imposed by observations of gravitational waves from stellar-mass sources.

Author

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Lia Medeiros

Institute for Advanced Study

Pierre Christian

University of Arizona

Feryal Ozel

University of Arizona

Kazunori Akiyama

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Harvard University

Antxon Alberdi

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Walter Alef

Max Planck Society

Keiichi Asada

Academia Sinica

Rebecca Azulay

Universitat de Valencia

Max Planck Society

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Balokovic

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Wilfred Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

Geoffrey C. Bower

Academia Sinica

Michael Bremer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Christiaan D. Brinkerink

Radboud University

Roger Brissenden

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Silke Britzen

Max Planck Society

Dominique Broguiere

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud University

Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

John E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

Andrew Chael

Princeton University

Chi-kwan Chan

University of Arizona

Shami Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

University of Amsterdam

Ming-Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ilje Cho

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

John Conway

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

Geoffrey B. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Yuzhu Cui

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud University

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Univ Monte SantAngelo

University of Naples Federico II

Roger Deane

Rhodes University

University of Pretoria

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Paris Descartes University

Jason Dexter

University of Colorado at Boulder

Ralph P. Eatough

Max Planck Society

Heino Falcke

Radboud University

Vincent L. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Raquel Fraga-Encinas

Radboud University

Per Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Goethe University Frankfurt

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Ciriaco Goddi

Leiden University

Radboud University

Jose L. Gomez

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Minfeng Gu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Mark Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kazuhiro Hada

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Ronald Hesper

University of Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

Mareki Honma

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Chih-Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

David H. Hughes

National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

Sara Issaoun

Radboud University

David J. James

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Michael Janssen

Radboud University

Wu Jiang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales

Max Planck Society

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Svetlana Jorstad

Saint Petersburg State University - Spsu

Boston University

Taehyun Jung

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Mansour Karami

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Ramesh Karuppusamy

Max Planck Society

Tomohisa Kawashima

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Garrett K. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Mark Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Jae-Young Kim

Max Planck Society

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Motoki Kino

Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

Michael Kramer

Max Planck Society

Carsten Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas P. Krichbaum

Max Planck Society

Cheng-Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University

Tod R. Lauer

NSF's National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory (NOIRLab)

Sang-Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yan-Rong Li

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory, Observation Support

Rocco Lico

Max Planck Society

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Jun Liu

Max Planck Society

Kuo Liu

Max Planck Society

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Wen-Ping Lo

National Taiwan University

Academia Sinica

Andrei P. Lobanov

Max Planck Society

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ru-Sen Lu

Max Planck Society

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sera Markoff

University of Amsterdam

Radboud University

Daniel P. Marrone

University of Arizona

Alan P. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Universitat de Valencia

Satoki Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Yosuke Mizuno

University of Amsterdam

Goethe University Frankfurt

Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

James M. Moran

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kotaro Moriyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Monika Moscibrodzka

Radboud University

Cornelia Muller

Max Planck Society

Radboud University

Gibwa Musoke

University of Amsterdam

Radboud University

Alejandro Mus Mejias

Universitat de Valencia

Hiroshi Nagai

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Neil M. Nagar

University of Concepcion

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

Rhodes University

Roberto Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Hector Olivares

Goethe University Frankfurt

Hiroki Okino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

Aristeidis Noutsos

Max Planck Society

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Daniel C. M. Palumbo

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Jongho Park

Academia Sinica

Nimesh Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ue-Li Pen

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

University of Toronto

Vincent Pietu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Richard Plambeck

University of California at Berkeley

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Ben Prather

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-Lopez

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

University of Concepcion

Ramprasad Rao

Academia Sinica

Mark G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Bart Ripperda

Flatiron Institute

Princeton University

Freek Roelofs

Radboud University

Alan Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Eduardo Ros

Max Planck Society

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

Helge Rottmann

Max Planck Society

Alan L. Roy

Max Planck Society

Chet Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Benjamin R. Ryan

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Kazi L. J. Rygl

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Salvador Sanchez

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

David Sanchez-Arguelles

National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Mahito Sasada

Hiroshima University

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Tuomas Savolainen

Max Planck Society

Aalto University

F. Peter Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

Karl-Friedrich Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Beijing University of Technology

Max Planck Society

Zhiqiang Shen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Bong Won Sohn

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yonsei University

Jason SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Remo P. J. Tilanus

Leiden University

University of Arizona

Radboud University

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

Michael Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Pablo Torne

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Max Planck Society

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

Efthalia Traianou

Max Planck Society

Sascha Trippe

Brandeis University

Ilse van Bemmel

University of Central Lancashire

Huib Jan van Langevelde

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Daniel R. van Rossum

Max Planck Society

Jan Wagner

Max Planck Society

John Wardle

Brandeis University

Derek Ward-Thompson

University of Central Lancashire

Jonathan Weintroub

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Norbert Wex

Max Planck Society

Robert Wharton

Max Planck Society

Maciek Wielgus

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Doosoo Yoon

University of Amsterdam

Andre Young

Radboud University

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

Goethe University Frankfurt

University College London (UCL)

Feng Yuan

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

Shan-Shan Zhao

Radboud University

Nanjing University

Physical Review Letters

0031-9007 (ISSN) 1079-7114 (eISSN)

Vol. 125 14 141104

Subject Categories

Geotechnical Engineering

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics

DOI

10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.141104

PubMed

33064506

More information

Latest update

4/13/2021