Yaw effect on bi-stable air-wakes of a generic ship using large eddy simulation
Journal article, 2021

An LES (large eddy simulation) investigation at 𝑅𝑒 = 8 × 104 has been conducted to predict the flow past a simplified frigate shape model at yaw, of which the stern is analogous to a double backward-facing step. At 0◦ yaw, the occurrence of a double bi-stable flow configuration is recorded, i.e. an asymmetrical flow topology is observed behind each step, and the flow configuration at the flight deck (top step) is anti-symmetrical as compared to the rear step. Even when the incoming flow is yawed with a small angle (e.g. ± 2.5◦), the bi- stable flow configuration is still present and the level of the asymmetry is increased at each step. Moreover, the negative angle maintains the same flow configuration as what is shown at 0◦ yaw, while the positive angle leads to the corresponding anti-symmetrical flow configuration. A larger yaw angle suppresses this asymmetrical flow topology on both steps. To explore those asymmetrical phenomena, a brief analysis and discussion are included for each case, showing that the direction of the incoming flow and the length of each step are key parameters that characterise this double bi-stable behaviour.

Generic ship

Bi-stable air-wakes

Yaw effect


Double backward-facing step


Jie Zhang

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Fluid Dynamics

Central South University

Guglielmo Minelli

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Fluid Dynamics

Branislav Basara


Rickard Bensow

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Marine Technology

Sinisa Krajnovic

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Fluid Dynamics

Ocean Engineering

0029-8018 (ISSN)

Vol. 219 108164

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Innovation and entrepreneurship

Areas of Advance



C3SE (Chalmers Centre for Computational Science and Engineering)

Subject Categories

Vehicle Engineering



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Latest update

1/7/2021 1