Spark ignition engine performance, standard emissions and particulates using GDI, PFI-CNG and DI-CNG systems
Journal article, 2021

Gaseous fuels, e.g., natural gas, biogas, have several advantages over liquid fuels owing to their favorable physical and chemical properties, e.g., lower carbon numbers in the fuel composition and no issues regarding fuel evaporation. The present study investigated compressed natural gas (CNG) port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI) systems compared to gasoline direct injection (GDI) cases in a spark ignition (SI) naturally aspirated single cylinder engine at stoichiometric conditions. The tests included usual engine working points – from 4.5 bar IMEP to 9 bar IMEP engine load at different engine speeds – from 1500 rpm to 2500 rpm. The main aim was to investigate how gaseous fuels can improve the SI engine efficiency, reduce standard emissions and particulates, and explain the benefits of a natural gas DI system versus standard gas PFI and GDI systems. Analysis of the results showed that the rate of heat release of natural gas was lower than that of gasoline fuel. However, the stable combustion process of DI-CNG gave additional benefits, e.g., increased turbulence in the cylinder, which increased the combustion rate and affected the exhaust gas formation. The highest engine efficiency was achieved with the same natural gas DI system. The highest iSHC, iSCO, iSCO2 and iSNOx emissions reduction achieved at low and part load conditions with DI-CNG compared to GDI combustion. Particulates formation was lower with the gaseous fuel compared to gasoline. Additional benefits of lower particulate numbers among three injection systems were observed with DI-CNG combustion.

Port fuel injection

Direct injection


Standard emissions and particulates

Spark ignition engine

Natural gas


Mindaugas Melaika

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Combustion and Propulsion Systems, Engines and Propulsion Systems

Gilles Herbillon

GDTech Engineering

Petter Dahlander

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Combustion and Propulsion Systems, Engines and Propulsion Systems


0016-2361 (ISSN)

Vol. 293 120454

Subject Categories

Other Mechanical Engineering

Energy Engineering




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