Environmental and safety aspects of AM metal powder recycling
Paper in proceeding, 2019

Repeated recirculation of powder in AM processes ultimately results in a powder with degraded properties. We firstly discuss this topic and describe an experiment designed to understand the mechanisms behind the degradation. Secondly, we perform yield analysis for build jobs on a SLM 125 at RISE IVF. Further on, we consider the required resources and estimate the emitted carbon dioxide equivalents (kgCO2eq) during production of the PBF-LB fraction of two gas atomized powders. The first powder is a tool steel alloy that emits 3.1 kgCO2eq/kg; the second powder is Hastelloy X (HX) that emits 24.2 kgCO2eq/kg. The HX powder, if degraded, is hence very desirable to recycle. Producing 1 kg of PBF-LB fraction from recycled HX material causes 5.7 kgCO2eq vs 24.2 from virgin sources. Finally, we review the health and safety aspects of recirculation and recycling of powder.


P. Mellin

Swerim AB

Mats Zackrisson

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Sepehr Hatami

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Sareh Götelid

Swerim AB

Joakim Ålgårdh

Swerim AB

Sigurd Berg


K. Dietrich

Linde AG

Pierre Forêt

Linde AG

Christos Oikonomou


Alexander Angré

Carpenter Powder Products AB

Lars Nyborg

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Robert Vikman


Håkan Brodin

Siemens industrial turbomachinery

Euro PM 2019 Congress and Exhibition

9781899072514 (ISBN)

European Powder Metallurgy Congress and Exhibition, Euro PM 2019
Maastricht, Netherlands,

Subject Categories

Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics

Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology

Other Civil Engineering

Areas of Advance


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