Numerical Friction Lines for CFD Based Form Factor Determination Method
Paper in proceedings, 2019
In this study, frictional resistance coefficients of an infinitely thin 2D plate have been computed at 14 Reynolds numbers (between log(10)(Rn) = 6.25 to 9.5) in sets of five geometrically similar structured grids in order to perform reliable grid dependence studies. Additional grid dependency studies have been performed by using 5 sets of grids which have the same number of cells in all directions but varying first cell sizes normal to the flat plate at log(10)(Rn) = 6.25. Average y(+) values for each grid set for the finest grid varies between 0.0075 and 0.5 (from set 1 to 5 respectively) while none of the simulations exceeded average y+ value of 1. All simulations were performed with the direct application of the no-slip condition at walls. Therefore, no wall functions were used. Two turbulence models have been used for the investigations: k - omega SST and EASM. Extensive grid dependence studies have been performed with two different CFD codes SHIPFLOW and FINE (TM)/MARINE, using the same grids. Special attention was paid to the transition from laminar to turbulent flow at the lowest Reynolds number since laminar part can cover a significant part of the plate. At log(10)(Rn) = 6.25 for both CFD codes, laminar flow and transition to turbulent flow was distinctive even though no transition models were applied. Significant dependency on y+ has been observed with FINE (TM)/MARINE on friction resistance coefficient. On the other hand, SHIPFLOW exhibited less sensitivity to the first cell size variation, hence, revealed smaller numerical uncertainties in general. To ensure a numerical uncertainty of frictional resistance component below 1%, average y(+) < 0.016 have been used for generating the data points of friction line with SHIPFLOW for each turbulence model. Data points of 14 Reynolds number have been transformed into numerical friction lines by applying curve fits. Obtained friction lines are compared with ITTC57 line, Schoenherr, Hughes, Toki, Katsui, Grigson lines and two numerical friction lines.
Friction resistance coefficient