ALMA Lensing Cluster Survey: Bright [C ii] 158 mu m Lines from a Multiply Imaged Sub-L* Galaxy at z=6.0719
Review article, 2021

We present bright [C ii] 158 mu m line detections from a strongly magnified and multiply imaged (mu similar to 20-160) sub-L* (MUV=-19.75-0.44+0.55) Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) at z = 6.0719 +/- 0.0004, drawn from the ALMA Lensing Cluster Survey (ALCS). Emission lines are identified at 268.7 GHz at >= 8 sigma exactly at the positions of two multiple images of the LBG, behind the massive galaxy cluster RXCJ0600-2007. Our lens models, updated with the latest spectroscopy from VLT/MUSE, indicate that a sub region of the LBG crosses the caustic, and is lensed into a long (similar to 6 '') arc with a local magnification of mu similar to 160, for which the [C ii] line is also significantly detected. The source plane reconstruction resolves the interstellar medium (ISM) structure, showing that the [C ii] line is co-spatial with the rest-frame UV continuum at a scale of similar to 300 pc. The [C ii] line properties suggest that the LBG is a rotation-dominated system, whose velocity gradient explains a slight difference in redshifts between the whole LBG and its sub-region. The star formation rate (SFR)-L-[CII] relations, for whole and sub-regions of the LBG, are consistent with those of local galaxies. We evaluate the lower limit of the faint-end of the [C ii] luminosity function at z = 6, finding it to be consistent with predictions from semi-analytical models and from the local SFR-L-[CII] relation with a SFR function at z = 6. These results imply that the local SFR-L-[CII] relation is universal for a wide range of scales, including the spatially resolved ISM, the whole region of the galaxy, and the cosmic scale, even in the epoch of reionization.


Seiji Fujimoto

University of Copenhagen

Masamune Oguri

University of Tokyo

Gabriel Brammer

University of Copenhagen

Yuki Yoshimura

University of Tokyo

Nicolas Laporte

University of Cambridge

Jorge Gonzalez-Lopez

Diego Portales University

Carnegie Institution for Science

Gabriel B. Caminha

University of Groningen

Kotaro Kohno

University of Tokyo

Adi Zitrin

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Johan Richard

Université de Lyon

Masami Ouchi

University of Tokyo

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Franz E. Bauer

Millennium Institute of Astrophysics

Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile

Ian Smail

Durham University

Bunyo Hatsukade

University of Tokyo

Yoshiaki Ono

University of Tokyo

Vasily Kokorev

University of Copenhagen

Hideki Umehata


University of Tokyo

Daniel Schaerer

University of Geneva

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

Kirsten Kraiberg Knudsen

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Astronomy and Plasmaphysics

Fengwu Sun

University of Arizona

Georgios Magdis

University of Copenhagen

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

Francesco Valentino

University of Copenhagen

Yiping Ao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sune Toft

University of Copenhagen

Miroslava Dessauges-Zavadsky

University of Geneva

Kazuhiro Shimasaku

University of Tokyo

Karina Caputi

University of Copenhagen

University of Groningen

Haruka Kusakabe

University of Geneva

Kana Morokuma-Matsui

University of Tokyo

Kikuchihara Shotaro

University of Tokyo

Eiichi Egami

University of Arizona

Minju M. Lee

Max Planck Society

Timothy Rawle

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Daniel Espada

SKA Organisation

Astrophysical Journal

0004-637X (ISSN) 1538-4357 (eISSN)

Vol. 911 2 99

Subject Categories

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Other Physics Topics

Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)



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