The development of cycling in european countries since 1990
Journal article, 2021

High pre-World-War-2 modal shares of cycling in European countries sharply decreased during the post-war decades. In the 1990s, European governments introduced policies to increase bicycle use. However, a database or longitudinal study on the development of bicycle use in European countries is lacking. The goal of this paper is to examine to what degree the amount of cycling has increased over the past decades, also in the context of potentially competing modes. Distances travelled per capita according to National Travel Surveys have been collected and were aggregated to seven 4-year periods between 1990 and 2017. Multilevel regression analyses on distance travelled per capita by bicycle, on foot, by public transport, and by passenger car were conducted for all countries. Additionally, analyses were conducted for which the 14 countries with data on bicycle use were divided in three groups categorised according to distance cycled per capita at the beginning of the study period. Distance cycled per capita per year ranged from some 30 km to 900 km. The results of all four regression analyses suggested that distance cycled per capita remained fairly constant over the past decades. Germany is an exception with some 150 km per capita more, in relative terms a 50% increase. Geographical variation in development is evidenced by a substantial increase of distance cycled per inhabitant in the capital cities of the countries included in the study. The outcomes suggest distance travelled on foot and by public transport (bus, tram, and metro) also remained fairly constant while the distance travelled by car increased by about 10% during the study period. We did not find indications that cycling substitutes travel on foot, by public transport or by car.

Bicycle use

National Travel Survey

Sustainable transport

Active transport



Paul Schepers

Utrecht University

Marco Helbich

Utrecht University

Marjan Hagenzieker

Delft University of Technology

The Institute of Transport Economics (TØI)

Bas de Geus

Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)

Marco Dozza

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Vehicle Safety

Niels Agerholm

Aalborg University

Anna Niska

The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)

Noora Airaksinen

University of Eastern Finland

Francis Papon

IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks

Regine Gerike

Technische Universität Dresden

Torkel Bjørnskau

The Institute of Transport Economics (TØI)

Rachel Aldred

University of Westminster

European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research

15677141 (eISSN)

Vol. 21 2 41-70

Subject Categories

Economic History

Transport Systems and Logistics

Public Administration Studies



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