An Overview of Interfaces for Automated Vehicles (inside/outside) (Deliverable D2.1 in the H2020 MSCA ITN project SHAPE-IT)
Report, 2021

This Deliverable starts with a short overview of the design principles and guidelines developed for current Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs), which are predominantly developed for manually driven vehicles, or those with a number of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), at SAE Levels 0 and 1 (SAE, 2018). It then provides an overview of how the addition of more capable systems, and the move to higher levels of vehicle automation, is changing the role the human inside an Automated Vehicle (AV), and the ways in which future automated vehicles at higher levels of automation (SAE level 4 and 5) must communicate with other road users, in the absence of an “in charge” human driver.

It is argued that such changes in the role of the driver, and more transfer of control to the AV and its different functionalities, means that there will be more emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of HMIs for future AVs. In parallel, the multifaceted nature of these HMI, presented from different locations, both in and outside the vehicles, using a variety of modalities, and engaging drivers in a two-way interaction, means that a new set of design guidelines are required, to ensure that the humans interacting with AVs (inside and outside the vehicle) are not distracted and overloaded, that they remain situation aware and understand the capabilities and limitations of the system, having the right mental model of system capabilities and their responsibilities, as responsible road users, at all times

Following a summary of suggested frameworks and design principles which highlight the significant change needed for new AV HMIs, an overview of results from studies investigating human interaction with internal (or iHMIs), and external (or eHMIs), is provided, with examples of new and innovative methods of communication between humans and their vehicles.

The Deliverable then provides a summary of the innovative approaches that will be tackled by the ESRs of the project, which focus on factors such as use of AI and AR for future design of more intuitive and transparent HMI, studying how HMI can support the long term interaction of humans with AVs, and the use of neuroergonomic methods for developing safer HMIs. The Deliverable concludes by summarising how each ESR’s project contributes to the development of HMIs for future AVs.


Natasha Merat

University of Leeds

Yue Yang

University of Leeds

Yee Mun Lee

University of Leeds

Siri Hegna Berge

Delft University of Technology

Nikol Figalova

University of Ulm

Sarang Jokhio

University of Ulm

Chen Peng

University of Leeds

Naomi Mbelekani

Technical University of Munich

Mohamed Nasser

University of Ulm

Amna Pir Muhammad

University of Gothenburg

Wilbert Tabone

Delft University of Technology

Liu Yuan-Cheng

Technical University of Munich

Martin Baumann

University of Ulm

Jonas Bärgman

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Vehicle Safety

Supporting the interaction of Humans and Automated vehicles: Preparing for the Environment of Tomorrow (Shape-IT)

European Commission (EC) (EC/H2020/860410), 2019-10-01 -- 2023-09-30.

Subject Categories

Interaction Technologies

Human Computer Interaction




SHAPE-IT Consortium

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