The effect of chemical and nano topographical modifications on early stage of osseointegration
Journal article, 2008
Purpose: To investigate the effect of chemically modified implants with similar micro but different nano topography on early stage of osseointegration. Materials and Methods: Screw shaped implants were placed in the flat proximal medial tibial methaphyses of 10 New Zealand white rabbits. Blasted (control); blasted-fluoride and blasted-nano HA implants were investigated. Surface evaluation included chemical analyses with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, morphological analyses with scanning electron microscopy and topographical analyses with interferometry. Bone response was investigated with removal torque measurements and histological analyses after a healing period of 4 weeks. Results: Chemical analyses revealed the presence of Ti, O, C and N in all implant groups. The blasted-F group revealed F and the blasted nano HA group Ca and P with simultaneous decrease of Ti and O. Surface roughness parameters showed a slight decrease of the average height deviation for the blasted nano-HA and blasted-F compared to the blasted control implants. SEM images at high magnification indicated the presence of nano structures on the chemically modified implants. Removal torque (RTQ) mean values revealed an increase of 17% to 25% for the chemically modified implants compared to the control implants and the histological analyses demonstrated a similar enhanced bone formation to the chemically modified implants with nanostructures. Conclusion: Chemical modifications used in the present study were capable of producing a unique nano topography and together with the ions present at the implant surface may explain the increased RTQ and histomorphometric values after a healing period of 4 weeks.