Low-Power/High-Gain Flexible Complementary Circuits Based on Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors
Journal article, 2022

The ability to accurately extract low-amplitude voltage signals is crucial in several fields, ranging from single-use diagnostics and medical technology to robotics and the Internet of Things (IoT). The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), which features large transconductance values at low operating voltages, is ideal for monitoring small signals. Here, low-power and high-gain flexible circuits based on printed complementary OECTs are reported. This work leverages the low threshold voltage of both p-type and n-type enhancement-mode OECTs to develop complementary voltage amplifiers that can sense voltages as low as 100 µV, with gains of 30.4 dB and at a power consumption of 0.1–2.7 µW (single-stage amplifier). At the optimal operating conditions, the voltage gain normalized to power consumption reaches 169 dB µW−1, which is >50 times larger than state-of-the-art OECT-based amplifiers. In a monolithically integrated two-stage configuration, these complementary voltage amplifiers reach voltage gains of 193 V/V, which are among the highest for emerging complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-like technologies operating at supply voltages below 1 V. These flexible complementary circuits based on printed OECTs define a new power-efficient platform for sensing and amplifying low-amplitude voltage signals in several emerging beyond-silicon applications.

voltage amplifiers


organic electrochemical transistors

organic mixed ion-electron conductors


Chi Yuan Yang

Linköping University

Deyu Tu

Linköping University

Tero Petri Ruoko

Linköping University

Jennifer Y. Gerasimov

Linköping University

Han Yan Wu

Linköping University

Padinhare Cholakkal Harikesh

Linköping University

Matteo Massetti

Linköping University

Marc Antoine Stoeckel

Linköping University

Renee Kroon

Linköping University

Christian Müller

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry

M. Berggren

Linköping University

n-Ink AB

S. Fabiano

Linköping University

n-Ink AB

Advanced Electronic Materials

2199-160X (ISSN)

Vol. 8 3 2100907

Subject Categories

Energy Engineering

Marine Engineering

Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering



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4/5/2022 5