Electricity generation from low and medium temperature industrial excess heat in the kraft pulp and paper industry
Journal article, 2021

The recovery and utilisation of industrial excess heat has been identified as an important contribution for energy efficiency by reducing primary energy demand. Previous works, based on top-down studies for a few sectors, or regional case studies estimated the overall availability of industrial excess heat. A more detailed analysis is required to allow the estimation of potentials for specific heat recovery technologies, particularly regarding excess heat temperature profiles. This work combines process integration methods and regression analysis to obtain cogeneration targets, detailed excess heat temperature profiles and estimations of electricity generation potentials from low and medium temperature excess heat. The work is based on the use of excess heat temperature (XHT) signatures for individual sites and regression analysis using publicly available data, obtaining estimations of the technical potential for electricity generation from low and medium temperature excess heat (60–140◦ C) for the whole Swedish kraft pulp and paper industry. The results show a technical potential to increase the electricity production at kraft mills in Sweden by 10 to 13%, depending on the level of process integration considered, and a lower availability of excess heat than previously estimated in studies for the sector. The approach used could be adapted and applied in other sectors and regions, increasing the level of detail at which industrial excess heat estimations are obtained when compared to previous studies.

Electricity generation

Organic Rankine cycle

Waste heat

Excess heat

Kraft mill

Heat integration

Pulp and paper


Igor Cruz

Linköping University

Magnus Wallén

Linköping University

Elin Svensson

CIT Industriell Energi AB

Simon Harvey

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology


1996-1073 (ISSN) 19961073 (eISSN)

Vol. 14 24 8499

Development and application of new methods for identifying efficient ways to use industrial excess heat

Swedish Energy Agency (42222-1), 2016-09-01 -- 2018-09-30.

Subject Categories

Energy Engineering

Other Environmental Engineering

Energy Systems



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