Benchmarking Advantage and D-Wave 2000Q quantum annealers with exact cover problems
Journal article, 2022

We benchmark the quantum processing units of the largest quantum annealers to date, the 5000 + qubit quantum annealer Advantage and its 2000+ qubit predecessor D-Wave 2000Q, using tail assignment and exact cover problems from aircraft scheduling scenarios. The benchmark set contains small, intermediate, and large problems with both sparsely connected and almost fully connected instances. We find that Advantage outperforms D-Wave 2000Q for almost all problems, with a notable increase in success rate and problem size. In particular, Advantage is also able to solve the largest problems with 120 logical qubits that D-Wave 2000Q cannot solve anymore. Furthermore, problems that can still be solved by D-Wave 2000Q are solved faster by Advantage. We find, however, that D-Wave 2000Q can achieve better success rates for sparsely connected problems that do not require the many new couplers present on Advantage, so improving the connectivity of a quantum annealer does not per se improve its performance.

Optimization problems


Quantum annealing

Quantum computing


Dennis Willsch

Forschungszentrum Jülich

Madita Willsch


Forschungszentrum Jülich

Carlos D. Gonzalez Calaza

Forschungszentrum Jülich

Fengping Jin

Forschungszentrum Jülich

Hans De Raedt

Forschungszentrum Jülich

University of Groningen

Marika Svensson

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Applied Quantum Physics

Jeppesen Systems AB

Kristel Michielsen


RWTH Aachen University

Forschungszentrum Jülich

Quantum Information Processing

1570-0755 (ISSN)

Vol. 21 4 141

An Open Superconducting Quantum Computer (OpenSuperQ)

European Commission (EC) (EC/H2020/820363), 2018-10-01 -- 2021-09-30.

Subject Categories

Computational Mathematics

Other Mathematics

Discrete Mathematics



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