Optimization over time of reliable 5G-RAN with network function migrations
Journal article, 2022

Resource optimization in 5G Radio Access Networks (5G-RAN) has to face the dynamics over time in networks with increasing numbers of nodes and virtual network functions. In this context, multiple objectives need to be jointly optimized, and key application requirements such as latency must be enforced. In addition, virtual network functions realizing baseband processing are subject to failures of the cloud infrastructure, requiring an additional level of reliability. Overall, this is a complex problem to solve, requiring fast algorithms to cope with dynamic networks while avoiding resource overprovisioning. This paper considers the problem of optimal virtual function placement in 5G-RAN with reliability against a single DU Hotel failure and proposes a solution that takes service dynamics into account. Firstly, the joint optimization of the total number of DU Hotels, of the RU–DU latency and of the backup DU sharing in a static traffic scenario is considered, and the DUOpt algorithm, based on Lexicographic Optimization, is proposed for solving efficiently this multi-objective problem. DUOpt splits the multi-objective problem into smaller Integer Linear Programming (ILP) subproblems that are sequentially solved, adopting for each one the most effective methodology to reduce the total execution time. The proposed DUOpt algorithm is extensively benchmarked to show its effectiveness in optimization of medium to large size networks: in particular, it is shown to greatly outperform an aggregate multi-objective approach, being able to compute optimal or close to optimal solutions for networks of several tens of nodes in computing times of a few seconds. Then, the problem is extended to a dynamic traffic scenario in which optimization is performed over time. In this context, in addition to the aforementioned objectives, the total number of network function migrations induced by multiple reoptimizations must be kept to the minimum. For solving efficiently this problem the DUMig algorithm is proposed, which extends and improves DUOpt. Reoptimization over a time horizon of one day in an illustrative dynamic traffic scenario is performed to evaluate the proposed DUMig algorithm against DUOpt, the latter being oblivious of the traffic dynamics. DUMig shows remarkable savings in the total number of migrations (above 86.1% for primary virtual functions and 83% for backup virtual functions) compared to DUOpt, while preserving near-optimal resource assignment.

Network function migrations

Lexicographic optimization

Reliable 5G-RAN


Nicola Di Cicco

Polytechnic University of Milan

Federico Tonini

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Communication, Antennas and Optical Networks

Valentina Cacchiani

University of Bologna

Carla Raffaelli

University of Bologna

Computer Networks

1389-1286 (ISSN)

Vol. 215 109216

Subject Categories


Communication Systems

Computer Systems



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