Blended modeling in commercial and open-source model-driven software engineering tools: A systematic study
Journal article, 2023

Blended modeling aims to improve the user experience of modeling activities by prioritizing the seamless interaction with models through multiple notations over the consistency of the models. Inconsistency tolerance, thus, becomes an important aspect in such settings. To understand the potential of current commercial and open-source modeling tools to support blended modeling, we have designed and carried out a systematic study. We identify challenges and opportunities in the tooling aspect of blended modeling. Specifically, we investigate the user-facing and implementation-related characteristics of existing modeling tools that already support multiple types of notations and map their support for other blended aspects, such as inconsistency tolerance, and elevated user experience. For the sake of completeness, we have conducted a multivocal study, encompassing an academic review, and grey literature review. We have reviewed nearly 5000 academic papers and nearly 1500 entries of grey literature. We have identified 133 candidate tools, and eventually selected 26 of them to represent the current spectrum of modeling tools.

Modeling tools

Inconsistency tolerance

Model-driven development


Multi-view modeling


Istvan David

Université de Montréal

Malvina Latifaj

Malardalen University

Jakob Pietron

University of Ulm

Weixing Zhang

University of Gothenburg

Federico Ciccozzi

Malardalen University

Ivano Malavolta

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Alexander Raschke

University of Ulm

Jan-Philipp Steghöfer

University of Gothenburg

Regina Hebig

University of Gothenburg

Software and Systems Modeling

1619-1366 (ISSN) 1619-1374 (eISSN)

Vol. 22 1 415-447

Blended Modelling for Enhanced Software and Systems Engineering

ITEA, 2019-11-01 -- 2023-03-31.

Subject Categories

Software Engineering

Information Science

Computer Science

Computer Systems



Related datasets

Replication package for "Blended Modeling in Commercial and Open-source Model-Driven Software Engineering Tools: A Systematic Study" [dataset]

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6402742

More information

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