SAFER HBM Model Development for Enhanced Submarining Prediction
Report, 2024

Submarining, defined as “the lap belt slides over iliac crest with lap belt forces effecting the internal abdominal organs during forward displacement of the lower torso”, can lead to injuries related to belt-to-abdominal loading in frontal automotive crashes. To study this phenomena with physical, i.e. Anthropometric Test Devices (ATDs), or virtual, e.g. finite element human body models (FE-HBMs), one first needs to validate the predicted response of these models in submarining scenarios. This report presents model development and validation of the SAFER HBM, to enable future submarining studies in frontal automotive crashes including population variability.

Vehicle safety


Human body models


Finite element


Erik Brynskog

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Vehicle Safety

Pelvis and spine injury predicting models for women and men in a variety of sitting postures in future autonomous cars

FFI - Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation (2018-04998), 2019-04-01 -- 2022-03-31.

Subject Categories

Other Mechanical Engineering

Applied Mechanics

Vehicle Engineering

Areas of Advance



C3SE (Chalmers Centre for Computational Science and Engineering)

Research report - Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences: REPORT 2024:03


Vehicle Safety

More information


6/4/2024 6