Carbon Formation on Nickel and Iron Oxide-Containing Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion
Journal article, 2005
For combustion with CO2 capture, chemical-looping combustion with inherent separation of CO2 is a promising technology. Two interconnected fluidized beds are used as reactors. In the fuel reactor, a gaseous fuel is oxidized by an oxygen carrier, e.g., metal oxide particles, producing carbon dioxide and water. The reduced oxygen carrier is then transported to the air reactor, where it is oxidized with air back to its original form before it is returned to the fuel reactor. Carbon deposition on oxygen-carrier particles was investigated to assess whether it could have adverse effects on the process. The oxygen-carrier particles used were based on oxides of nickel and iron and produced by freeze granulation. They were sintered at 1300 degreesC for 4 h and sieved to a size range of 125-180 mum. The study of carbon deposition was performed in a laboratory fluidized-bed reactor, simulating a chemical-looping combustion system by exposing the sample to alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions. The particles with nickel oxide were tested at 750, 850, and 950 degreesC, and the particles with iron oxide at 950 degreesC. On the oxygen carrier with nickel oxide, only minor amounts of carbon formed during most of the reduction. However, when more than 80% of the oxygen available was consumed, significant carbon formation started. The formation of carbon was also clearly correlated to low conversion of the fuel. No carbon was formed on the oxygen carrier based on iron oxide. The interpretation for the actual application of this process is that carbon formation should not be a problem, because the process should be run under conditions of high conversions of the fuel.