Changes in the Antioxidative Property of Herring (Clupea harengus) Press Juice during a Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion
Journal article, 2007
The aqueous fraction (press juice, PJ) from herring muscle was recently shown to inhibit hemoglobin-mediated oxidation of washed fish mince lipids during ice storage. As a first step to evaluate potential in vivo antioxidative effects from herring PJ, the aim of-this study was to investigate whether herring PJ retains its antioxidative capacity during a simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. Press juice from whole muscle (WMPJ) and light muscle (LMPJ) was mixed with pepsin solution followed by stepwise pH adjustments and additions of pancreatin and bile solutions. Digestive enzymes were removed from samples by ultrafiltration (10 kDa). Before, during, and after digestion, samples were analyzed for their peptide content and for antioxidative properties with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation assays. From 0 to 165 min of digestion, the content of < 10 kDa peptides in WMPJ and LMPJ samples increased 12- and 7-fold, respectively. Further, both samples got similar to 12.5 times higher ORAC values and gave rise to similar to 1.3-fold increased lag phase in Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation. The largest changes in peptide content, ORAC values, and LDL oxidation inhibition occurred between 30 and 75 min of digestion, indicating that these parameters might be interrelated. When comparing analytical data obtained after 165 min of digestion with data obtained from analyses of native nondigested PJs, it was found that the data on peptide. content, ORAC, and LDL oxidation from digested PJs were 64-69%, 121-161%, and 112-115%, respectively, of those of nondigested PJs. The study thus showed that enzymatic breakdown of PJ proteins under GI-like conditions increases the peroxyl radical scavenging activity and the potential to inhibit LDL oxidation of herring PJs. These data provide a solid basis for further studies of uptake and in vivo activities of herring-derived aqueous antioxidants.