Comparison of Shoulder Range-of-Motion and Stiffness between Volunteers, Hybrid III and THOR Alpha in Static Frontal Impact Loading
Journal article, 2005

The aim of this study was to compare the shoulder range-of-motion and stiffness between volunteers and 50th percentile dummies in static loading conditions simulating frontal collisions. Five volunteers a Hybrid III and a THOR Alpha were positioned in a test rig where both arms were statically loaded in the forward-upward direction at 90°, 135° and 170° angles while the sternum was supported. The distances between right shoulders and sternums were estimated by means of photo analysis. The photo analysis showed that the volunteers’ range-of-motion was at least three times larger for the maximum load (200 N/arm) than those of the Hybrid III and the THOR Alpha. The results indicate that the biofidelity of the dummies used today in full-frontal, oblique and offset frontal collisions may be improved by redesigned shoulder complexes. The dummies would then better predict the human kinematics and the loading of the chest by various restraint systems.





Crash test dummy

Hybrid III



Fredrik Törnvall

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

Kristian Holmqvist

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

Jan Martinsson

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

Johan Davidsson

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

International Journal of Crashworthiness

1358-8265 (ISSN) 1573-8965 (eISSN)

Vol. 10 2 151-160

Subject Categories

Mechanical Engineering



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