Photooxidant-forming monoterpenes in air plumes from kraft pulp industries
Journal article, 1993
Monoterpenes emitted to air from two Swedish kraft (sulphate) pulp-mills were determined by sampling on the Tenax adsorbent followed by laboratory analysis using thermal desorption combined with high-resolution gas chromatography. The composition of the terpenes was found to be similar in the emissions from various parts of the process as well as in the mill plume. The bicyclic terpenes alpha-pinene and 3-carene, originating principally from wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), predominated among the thirteen assessed hydrocarbon monoterpenes. Terpinolene was the most prominent among the particularly reactive terpenes with a lifetime in ozone-rich air of only a few minutes. The rapid formation of photooxidants by chemical reactions of the terpenes with other components of the mill plume is discussed. It is concluded that a variety of phytotoxic photooxidants are formed which may contribute significantly to forest decline within 50 km of mills located along coasts.