Excess Heat from Kraft Pulp Mills: Trade-offs between Internal and External Use in the Case of Sweden - Part 1: Methodology
Journal article, 2008

Excess heat from a kraft pulp mill can be used either internally to increase the level of efficiency in the mill, or externally for example as district heating. This paper presents an approach to investigate the competition between external and internal use through modelling the pulp mill and an energy company (ECO) within the same system boundary. Three different sizes of ECOs with different district heating demands are studied. To investigate the competitiveness of using industrial excess heat as district heating compared with other heat production techniques, the option of investing in excess heat use is introduced, along with the possibility for the ECO to invest in biomass combined heat and power (CHP), waste CHP and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC). To evaluate the robustness of the model, alternative solutions are identified and will be used as a comparison to the optimal solutions. The model has been verified by comparing the results with previous studies concerning kraft pulp mills and with related studies regarding district heating and real ECOs. Finally, the approach presented in this part of the study will be used in the second part in order to investigate the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat under different future energy market scenarios.

Kraft pulp mill

Industrial excess heat

Energy efficiency


Inger-Lise Svensson

Linköping University

Johanna Jönsson

Industrial Energy Systems and Technologies

Thore Berntsson

Industrial Energy Systems and Technologies

Bahram Moshfegh

Linköping University

Energy Policy

0301-4215 (ISSN)

Vol. 36 11 4009-4298

Subject Categories

Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics

Chemical Engineering



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