Bivalent Cholesterol-based coupling of oligonucleotides to lipid membrane assemblies
Journal article, 2004
By mimicking Nature's way of utilizing multivalent interactions, we introduce in the present work a novel method to improve the strength of cholesterol-based DNA coupling to lipid membranes. The bivalent coupling of DNA was accomplished by hybridization between a 15-mer DNA and a 30-mer DNA, being modified with cholesterol in the 3′ and 5′ end, respectively. Compared with DNA modified with one cholesterol moiety only, the binding strength to lipid membranes appears to be significantly stronger and even irreversible over the time scale investigated (∼1 hr). First, this means that the bivalent coupling can be used to precisely control the number of DNA per lipid-membrane area. Second, the strong coupling is demonstrated to facilitate DNA-hybridization kinetics studies. Third, exchange of DNA between differently DNA-modified vesicles was demonstrated to be significantly reduced. The latter condition was verified via site-selective and sequence-specific sorting of differently DNA-modified lipid vesicles on a low-density cDNA array. This means of spatially control the location of different types of lipid vesicles is likely to find important applications in relation to the rapid progress currently made in the protein chip technology and the emerging need for efficient ways to develop membrane protein arrays.