Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometric analysis of the interface between bone and titanium implants.
Journal article, 2008
Implant healing into bone tissue is a process where the mature bone grows towards and eventually fuses with the implant. In this study we investigated implant healing during 4 weeks with focus on the implant-tissue interface. Our main interest was to study the mineralization process around the implant. Titanium discs were implanted in rat tibia for 2 and 4 weeks. After implantation cross sections of bone and implant were made using a low-speed saw equipped with a diamond wafering blade. One section from each sample was stained with basic fuchsin and micrographed by light microscopy (LM). The other section was analyzed with imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) using a Bi(3)(+) cluster ion source. This ion source has recently been shown to enable identification of high-mass hydroxyapatite (HA) fragment ions (m/z 291-653) in bone samples. The LM images were used to identify areas suitable for TOF-SIMS analysis. Three areas were selected for mass spectral analysis, corresponding to interface region, bone and soft tissue, from which positive ion spectra were recorded. In the areas identified as bone, high-mass HA fragments ions were found after both 2 and 4 weeks. In the soft tissue area, no high-mass ions were found after 4 weeks. However, after 2 weeks HA-related ions were identified in mineralized spots in areas defined as soft tissue. After 4 but not after 2 weeks, high-mass HA fragment ions were found in the interface region. In conclusion, differences were observed regarding mineralization between 2 and 4 weeks of implantation and between different regions surrounding the implants. Imaging TOF-SIMS analysis using a Bi(3)(+) cluster as ion source enables identification of high-mass HA fragment ions at implant-tissue interfaces in bone. This technique might therefore be useful for biocompatibility assessment and for studying the mineralization process at implant surfaces.
Prostheses and Implants
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization