Ramp-up of CO2 capture and storage within Europe
Journal article, 2008
This paper investigates the role of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technologies as part of a portfolio for reducing CO2 emissions from the European electricity generation system until the year 2050. Special emphasis is put on the ramp-up of CCS with respect to timing of investments and requirement of corresponding CO2 transportation and storage infrastructure. The investigation comprises scenario analysis through modeling possible development of the electricity supply system for EU25 and together with a more detailed analysis of Northern Europe (Germany, UK, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway). The modeling has been carried out with a techno-economic model (minimizing the system cost) including a detailed description of the present stationary European electricity generation system as obtained from the Chalmers Energy Infrastructure database.
It is concluded that CCS can play a significant role in reducing CO2 emissions at a cost in the range of 20–60 €/t over the period studied. In EU25 as much as 39 Gt CO2 may be captured over the period 2020–2050 implying a steep ramp-up, i.e. most CCS capacity is added during the first two decades after 2020 from which it is assumed to be commercially available. Corresponding capture in Germany and UK amounts to 9 and 4 Gt, respectively. The analysis show that a transportation infrastructure can be put in place for about 2–5 €/t CO2. However, the steep ramp-up obtained from the model obviously do not take into account other issues which must be resolved for a large scale implementation of CCS. Examples of such issues are discussed in the paper and concern establishment of a legal framework regulating subsurface storage of CO2, inclusion of captured CO2 in the European Union emission trading scheme and issues related to fuel markets and fuel supply to accommodate an increased use of coal as a fuel.