Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems-Atmosphere interactions
Journal article, 2009

Ecosystems and the atmosphere: This review describes the state of understanding the processes involved in the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The gases covered include NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, DMS, Biogenic VOC, O3, CH4, N2O and particles in the size range 1nm-10μm including organic and inorganic chemical species. The main focus of the review is on the exchange between terrestrial ecosystems, both managed and natural and the atmosphere, although some new developments in ocean-atmosphere exchange are included. The material presented is biased towards the last decade, but includes earlier work, where more recent developments are limited or absent. New methodologies and instrumentation have enabled, if not driven technical advances in measurement. These developments have advanced the process understanding and upscaling of fluxes, especially for particles, VOC and NH3. Examples of these applications include mass spectrometric methods, such as Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) adapted for field measurement of atmosphere-surface fluxes using micrometeorological methods for chemically resolved aerosols. Also briefly described are some advances in theory and techniques in micrometeorology. For some of the compounds there have been paradigm shifts in approach and application of both techniques and assessment. These include flux measurements over marine surfaces and urban areas using micrometeorological methods and the up-scaling of flux measurements using aircraft and satellite remote sensing. The application of a flux-based approach in assessment of O3 effects on vegetation at regional scales is an important policy linked development secured through improved quantification of fluxes. The coupling of monitoring, modelling and intensive flux measurement at a continental scale within the NitroEurope network represents a quantum development in the application of research teams to address the underpinning science of reactive nitrogen in the cycling between ecosystems and the atmosphere in Europe. Some important developments of the science have been applied to assist in addressing policy questions, which have been the main driver of the research agenda, while other developments in understanding have not been applied to their wider field especially in chemistry-transport models through deficiencies in obtaining appropriate data to enable application or inertia within the modelling community. The paper identifies applications, gaps and research questions that have remained intractable at least since 2000 within the specialized sections of the paper, and where possible these have been focussed on research questions for the coming decade.

Biogenic emissions

Trace gas fluxes

Dry deposition

Compensation points



D. Fowler

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology

K. Pilegaard

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

M. A. Sutton

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology

P. Ambus

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

M. Raivonen

University of Helsinki

J. Duyzer

Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO)

David Simpson

Chalmers, Department of Radio and Space Science, Global Environmental Measurements and Modelling

H. Fagerli

Norwegian Meteorological Institute

S. Fuzzi

Consiglo Nazionale Delle Richerche

J.K. Schjoerring

University of Copenhagen

C. Granier

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory

University of Colorado at Boulder

Pierre and Marie Curie University (UPMC)

A. Neftel

Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon

I.S.A. Isaksen

Cicero Senter for klimaforskning

University of Oslo

P. Laj

Observatoire de Physique du Globe Clermont Ferrand (OPGC)

Université Grenoble Alpes

M. Maione

Universita degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo

P.S. Monks

University Of Leicester

J. Burkhardt

University of Bonn

U. Daemmgen

Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Landwirtschaft

J. Neirynck

Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Brussels

E. Personne

INRA Centre de Recherche de Versailles-Grignon

R. Wichink-Kruit

Wageningen University and Research

K. Butterbach-Bahl

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

C. R. Flechard

INRA Centre de Rennes

J.P. Tuovinen

Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)

M. Coyle

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology

G. Gerosa

Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore

B. Loubet

INRA Centre de Recherche de Versailles-Grignon

N. Altimir

University of Helsinki

L. Gruenhage

Justus Liebig University Giessen

C. Ammann

Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon

S. Cieslik

Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission

E Paoletti

Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante. IPSP-CNR

T.N. Mikkelsen

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

H. Ro-Poulsen

University of Copenhagen

P. Cellier

INRA Centre de Recherche de Versailles-Grignon

J. N. Cape

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology

L. Horvath

Hungarian Meteorological Service

F. Loreto

Consiglo Nazionale Delle Richerche

U Niinemets

Estonian University of Life Sciences

P.I. Palmer

University of Edinburgh

J. Rinne

University of Helsinki

P. Misztal

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology

E. Nemitz

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology

Daniel Nilsson

Stockholm University

S. Pryor

Indiana University

M.W. Gallagher

University of Manchester

T Vesala

University of Helsinki

U. M. Skiba

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology

N. Bruggemann

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

S. Zechmeister-Boltenstern

Das Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum fur Wald, Naturgefahren und Landschaft

J. Williams

Max Planck Society

C. O'Dowd

National University of Ireland

M. C. Facchini

Consiglo Nazionale Delle Richerche

G. de Leeuw

Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)

A. Flossman

Observatoire de Physique du Globe Clermont Ferrand (OPGC)

N. Chaumerliac

Observatoire de Physique du Globe Clermont Ferrand (OPGC)

J. W. Erisman

Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN)

Atmospheric Environment

1352-2310 (ISSN)

Vol. 43 33 5193-5267

Subject Categories

Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences


Environmental Sciences



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