Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems-Atmosphere interactions
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2009

Ecosystems and the atmosphere: This review describes the state of understanding the processes involved in the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The gases covered include NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, DMS, Biogenic VOC, O3, CH4, N2O and particles in the size range 1nm-10μm including organic and inorganic chemical species. The main focus of the review is on the exchange between terrestrial ecosystems, both managed and natural and the atmosphere, although some new developments in ocean-atmosphere exchange are included. The material presented is biased towards the last decade, but includes earlier work, where more recent developments are limited or absent. New methodologies and instrumentation have enabled, if not driven technical advances in measurement. These developments have advanced the process understanding and upscaling of fluxes, especially for particles, VOC and NH3. Examples of these applications include mass spectrometric methods, such as Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) adapted for field measurement of atmosphere-surface fluxes using micrometeorological methods for chemically resolved aerosols. Also briefly described are some advances in theory and techniques in micrometeorology. For some of the compounds there have been paradigm shifts in approach and application of both techniques and assessment. These include flux measurements over marine surfaces and urban areas using micrometeorological methods and the up-scaling of flux measurements using aircraft and satellite remote sensing. The application of a flux-based approach in assessment of O3 effects on vegetation at regional scales is an important policy linked development secured through improved quantification of fluxes. The coupling of monitoring, modelling and intensive flux measurement at a continental scale within the NitroEurope network represents a quantum development in the application of research teams to address the underpinning science of reactive nitrogen in the cycling between ecosystems and the atmosphere in Europe. Some important developments of the science have been applied to assist in addressing policy questions, which have been the main driver of the research agenda, while other developments in understanding have not been applied to their wider field especially in chemistry-transport models through deficiencies in obtaining appropriate data to enable application or inertia within the modelling community. The paper identifies applications, gaps and research questions that have remained intractable at least since 2000 within the specialized sections of the paper, and where possible these have been focussed on research questions for the coming decade.

Dry deposition

Trace gas fluxes

Biogenic emissions

Compensation points

Resuspension

Författare

D. Fowler

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

K. Pilegaard

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)

M. A. Sutton

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

P. Ambus

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)

M. Raivonen

Helsingin Yliopisto

J. Duyzer

Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek (TNO)

David Simpson

Chalmers, Institutionen för radio- och rymdvetenskap, Global miljömätteknik och modellering

H. Fagerli

Meteorologisk institutt

S. Fuzzi

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

J.K. Schjoerring

University of Copenhagen

C. Granier

Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC)

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory

University of Colorado at Boulder

A. Neftel

Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon

I.S.A. Isaksen

Universitetet i Oslo

Cicero Senter for klimaforskning

P. Laj

Université Grenoble Alpes

Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont- Ferrand

M. Maione

Universita degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo

P.S. Monks

University Of Leicester

J. Burkhardt

Universität Bonn

U. Daemmgen

Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Landwirtschaft

J. Neirynck

Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Brussels

E. Personne

INRA Centre de Recherche de Versailles-Grignon

R. Wichink-Kruit

Wageningen University and Research Centre

K. Butterbach-Bahl

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

C. R. Flechard

INRA Centre de Rennes

J.P. Tuovinen

Finnish Meteorological Institute

M. Coyle

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

G. Gerosa

Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore

B. Loubet

INRA Centre de Recherche de Versailles-Grignon

N. Altimir

Helsingin Yliopisto

L. Gruenhage

Justus Liebig University Giessen

C. Ammann

Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon

S. Cieslik

European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra

E Paoletti

Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante. IPSP-CNR

T.N. Mikkelsen

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)

H. Ro-Poulsen

Köbenhavns Universitet

P. Cellier

INRA Centre de Recherche de Versailles-Grignon

J. N. Cape

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

L. Horvath

Hungarian Meteorological Service

F. Loreto

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

U Niinemets

Estonian University of Life Sciences

P.I. Palmer

University of Edinburgh

J. Rinne

Helsingin Yliopisto

P. Misztal

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

E. Nemitz

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

Daniel Nilsson

Stockholms universitet

S. Pryor

Indiana University

M.W. Gallagher

University of Manchester

T Vesala

Helsingin Yliopisto

U. M. Skiba

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

N. Bruggemann

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

S. Zechmeister-Boltenstern

Das Bundesforschungs- und Ausbildungszentrum fur Wald, Naturgefahren und Landschaft

J. Williams

Max Planck-institutet

C. O'Dowd

National University of Ireland Galway

M. C. Facchini

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

G. de Leeuw

Finnish Meteorological Institute

A. Flossman

Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont- Ferrand

N. Chaumerliac

Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont- Ferrand

J. W. Erisman

Energy research Centre of the Netherlands - ECN

Atmospheric Environment

1352-2310 (ISSN)

Vol. 43 33 5193-5267

Ämneskategorier

Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning

Ekologi

Miljövetenskap

DOI

10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.07.068