Process industry energy retrofits: the importance of emission baselines for greenhouse gas reductions
Journal article, 2004
Fuel combustion for heat and/or electric power production is often the largest contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
from an industrial process plant. Economically feasible options to reduce these emissions include fuel switching and retroﬁtting the
plants energy system. Process integration methods and tools can be used to evaluate potential retroﬁt measures. For assessing the
GHG emissions reduction potential for the measures considered, it is also necessary to deﬁne appropriate GHG emission baselines.
This paper presents a systematic GHG emission calculation method for retroﬁt situations including improved heat exchange,
integration of combined heat and power (CHP) units, and combinations of both. The proposed method is applied to ﬁve different
industrial processes in order to compare the impact of process speciﬁc parameters and energy market speciﬁc parameters. For
potential GHG emission reductions the results from the applied study reveal that electricity grid emissions are signiﬁcantly more
important than differences between individual processes. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested that for sustainable
investment decision considerations a conservative emission baseline is most appropriate. Even so, new industrial CHP in the
Northern European energy market could play a signiﬁcant role in the common effort to decrease GHG emissions.
Greenhouse gas reduction