Probe diffusion in κ-carrageenan gels determined by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching
Journal article, 2012
The effects of free volume and heterogeneity on probe diffusion in κ-carrageenan gels were determined by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and rheology. By changing the ionic conditions, biopolymer concentration and end temperature, different microstructures and aggregation kinetics in the κ-carrageenan gels were evaluated. The results of the FRAP measurements were compared to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance diffusometry (NMRd) data from previous studies. The results showed that the free diffusion rates of the probe (FITC dextran) in water were influenced by both temperature and ionic conditions. The free diffusion values were used for normalization of the diffusion rates in the κ-carrageenan gel measurements. The compatibility between FITC dextran with different molecular weights (10 and 500 kDa) and κ-carrageenan was evaluated. The results showed that the larger FITC dextran probe phase separates; therefore only the 10 kDa FITC dextran probe was used in the FRAP experiments. FRAP measurements and NMRd probe diffusion in combination with TEM in κ-carrageenan revealed that the void space, degree of aggregation and heterogeneity influence the probe diffusion rate. The κ-carrageenan gelation was analyzed at different end temperatures using rheology and FRAP. The FITC dextran probe diffusion was not influenced by κ-carrageenan aggregation, regardless of rheological gelation kinetics and storage modulus near the gel point. This indicates that the average void space between the gel strands is larger than the size of the probe. Good correlation between the microstructure and the probe diffusion rate in κ-carrageenan gel with different ionic conditions and constant biopolymer concentration were obtained with TEM and FRAP.
Confocal laser scanning microscope
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching