Kidney cadmium levels and associations with urinary calcium and bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study in Sweden.
Journal article, 2013
Cadmium (Cd) can cause renal damage and osteoporosis after high-level exposure. Recently such effects, including increased urinary excretion of calcium, have been shown also at low-level exposure, as measured by Cd in blood or urine. However, associations with kidney Cd have not been examined. The aim of this study was to explore the relation between kidney Cd and urinary calcium excretion, or bone mineral density.
Bone mineral density