Three-dimensional modelling of anchorage zones in reinforced concrete
Journal article, 2001
A new 3D micromechanics-based framework is proposed for the nonlinear analysis of pultruded fiber-reinforced polymeric composites. The proposed 3D modeling framework is a nested multiscale approach that explicitly recognizes the response of the composite systems (layers) within the cross section of the pultruded member. These layers can have reinforcements in the form of roving, continuous filament mat (CFM), and/or woven fabrics. Different 3D micromechanical models for the layers can be used to recognize the basic response of the fiber and matrix materials. The framework is implemented with both shell and 3D finite elements. The 3D lamination theory is used to generate a homogenized nonlinear effective response for a through-thickness representative stacking sequence. The proposed modeling framework for pultruded composites is used to predict the stiffness and nonlinear stress-strain response of E-glass/vinylester pultruded materials reinforced with roving and CFM. The roving layer is idealized using a 3D nonlinear micromechanics model for a unidirectional fiber-reinforced material. A simple nonlinear micromechanics model for the CFM layer is also applied. The proposed model shows very good predictive capabilities of the overall effective properties and the nonlinear response of pultruded composites, based on the in situ material properties, and the volume fractions of the constituents. Experimental data from off-axis tests of pultruded plates under uniaxial compression are used to verify the proposed model. The proposed framework can be easily incorporated within displacement-based finite-element models of composite structures.