Empirical to mechanistic modelling in high shear granulation
Journal article, 2005
This paper gives an overview of the different models available for granulation in high shear mixers with a focus on applicability in the pharmaceutical industry. Three examples of applications are given. The examples indicate the potential of mechanistically based models for scale-up and the importance of understanding the dynamics of the granulation process. The ﬁrst two examples show how the impeller torque can be modelled and predicted in the dry and wet mixing phases of the high shear granulation process, using a solid mechanics and a hierarchical multivariate model, respectively. In the third application the particle size distribution is modelled using population balances and it is shown how different operating conditions can be included in the coalescence kernel to describe the granule growth.