Combined Cu/Mn Oxides as an Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU)
Journal article, 2013
This study investigates the O2 uncoupling properties of five different oxygen carrier particles, consisting of combined oxides of CuO and Mn3O4. The oxygen carriers were produced by freeze granulation followed by calcination at 950 °C for 6 h. Particles with 5, 10, 20, 31, and 61 wt % CuO were examined in both an inert (pure N2) atmosphere and in the presence of solid fuel (wood char) at 750 °C. At this relatively low temperature during fluidization with N2, the samples were capable of releasing gas-phase O2 in concentrations up to 1%. During reduction with wood char in 15 g of oxygen carriers, some materials could release gaseous O2 equal to 1.4% of their total mass. When the crushing strength and attrition index were measured with a customized jet cup, the mechanical stability of these samples was compared. These measurements showed that, in general, samples with a higher CuO content were more mechanically stable. On the basis of XRD analysis of the oxygen carriers, the major phase transitions were Mn2O3 ↔ Mn3O4 and combined spinel (Cu,Mn)3O4 ↔ CuMnO2. These transitions both provide a considerable amount of O2. It is concluded that the Cu–Mn–O system has considerable potential to be used as a oxygen carrier in chemical-looping applications at lower temperatures, perhaps interesting for biofuel combustion.