Defects and defect costs in construction - a study of seven building projects in Sweden
Other, 1998

In this paper, results from a study of defects occurring on construction sites are presented. Seven building projects were monitored during the production phase. 2,879 defects were collected, analysed and fully described. Their cost corresponds to 4.4% of the production cost. The time to correct them corresponds to 7% of the total working time. The defects are further analysed according to origin, type and position, as well as according to element of building and activity. Most defects could be ascribed to design and to production management. Common defect types were lack of coordinating design work, mistakes in production planning, erroneous workmanship and late deliveries. The defect cost was high in roofs and in concrete drilling. The possibility to reduce the cost of defects is discussed.

human error


defect costs

building projects


Per-Erik Josephson

Department of Building Economics and Construction Management

Areas of Advance

Building Futures (2010-2018)


Subject Categories

Construction Management

Business Administration

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