Co-Feeding of Natural Gas in Pyrolysis Plants Producing Biofuels - GHG Savings and Economic Impact
Paper in proceedings, 2014
A major limitation in pyrolysis of biomass is the upgrading of the liquid product (bio-oil) for meeting the requirement of subsequent use as transportation fuel. This paper proposes a process (the IH2 process) based on combined hydropyrolysis and hydroconversion for in-situ upgrading of the liquid fraction into transportation fuels. In the hydropyrolysis reactor biomass and hydrogen react producing a liquid product with very low oxygen content. Although the process concept has been demonstrated, the source of hydrogen is a weakness of the process. The techno-economic assessment of the IH2 process assumed the use of the gas stream from the hydropyrolysis (off-gas) as the source for hydrogen. This assumption should be feasible for an nth of a kind plant, but it is not suitable for a first-of-a-kind plant, where the technical limitations of off-gas reforming would increase the risk of investment. In this study, we analyze a modified IH2 process using co-feeding of natural gas for the installation of a first-of-a-kind plant in Europe. The results are favorable for the co-feeding of natural gas in hydropyrolysis plants.