Surface chemical state of Ti powders and its alloys: Effect of storage conditions and alloy composition
Journal article, 2016

High affinity of titanium to oxygen in combination with the high surface area of the powder results in tremendous powder reactivity and almost inevitable presence of passivation oxide film on the powder surface. Oxide film is formed during the short exposure of the powder to the environment at even a trace amount of oxygen. Hence, surface state of the powder determines its usefulness for powder metallurgy processing. Present study is focused on the evaluation of the surface oxide state of the Ti, NiTi and Ti6Al4V powders in as-atomized state and after storage under air or Ar for up to eight years. Powder surface oxide state was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR SEM). Results indicate that powder in as-atomized state is covered by homogeneous Ti-oxide layer with the thickness of ∼2.9 nm for Ti, ∼3.2 nm and ∼4.2 nm in case of Ti6Al4V and NiTi powders, respectively. Exposure to the air results in oxide growth of about 30% in case of Ti and only about 10% in case of NiTi and Ti6Al4V. After the storage under the dry air for two years oxide growth of only about 3-4% was detected in case of both, Ti and NiTi powders. NiTi powder, stored under the dry air for eight years, indicates oxide thickness of about 5.3 nm, which is about 30% thicker in comparison with the as-atomized powder. Oxide thickness increase of only ∼15% during the storage for eight years in comparison with the powder, shortly exposed to the air after manufacturing, was detected. Results indicate a high passivation of the Ti, Ti6Al4V and NiTi powder surface by homogeneous layer of Ti-oxide formed even during short exposure of the powder to the air.

Titanium powder

Titanium alloy powder

Surface chemical state

Storage conditions

Oxide layer thickness

Author

Eduard Hryha

Chalmers, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Surface and Microstructure Engineering

Ruslan Shvab

Chalmers, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Surface and Microstructure Engineering

Martin Bram

Forschungszentrum Jülich

Martin Bitzer

Forschungszentrum Jülich

Lars Nyborg

Chalmers, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Surface and Microstructure Engineering

Applied Surface Science

0169-4332 (ISSN)

294-303

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories

Materials Engineering

Metallurgy and Metallic Materials

Areas of Advance

Production

Materials Science

DOI

10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.01.046