Towards grading gleason score using generically trained deep convolutional neural networks
Paper in proceedings, 2016
© 2016 IEEE.We developed an automatic algorithm with the purpose to assist pathologists to report Gleason score on malignant prostatic adenocarcinoma specimen. In order to detect and classify the cancerous tissue, a deep convolutional neural network that had been pre-trained on a large set of photographic images was used. A specific aim was to support intuitive interaction with the result, to let pathologists adjust and correct the output. Therefore, we have designed an algorithm that makes a spatial classification of the whole slide into the same growth patterns as pathologists do. The 22-layer network was cut at an earlier layer and the output from that layer was used to train both a random forest classifier and a support vector machines classifier. At a specific layer a small patch of the image was used to calculate a feature vector and an image is represented by a number of those vectors. We have classified both the individual patches and the entire images. The classification results were compared for different scales of the images and feature vectors from two different layers from the network. Testing was made on a dataset consisting of 213 images, all containing a single class, benign tissue or Gleason score 35. Using 10-fold cross validation the accuracy per patch was 81 %. For whole images, the accuracy was increased to 89 %.
Convolutional Neural Networks