Detachment of Membrane Bound Virions by Competitive Ligand Binding Induced Receptor Depletion
Journal article, 2017
Multivalent receptor-mediated interactions between virions and a lipid membrane can be weakened using competitive nonpathogenic ligand binding. In particular, the subsequent binding of such ligands can induce detachment of bound virions, a phenomenon of crucial relevance for the development of new antiviral drugs. Focusing on the simian virus 40 (SV40) and recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB), and using (monosialotetrahexosyl)ganglioside (GM1) as their common receptor in a supported lipid bilayer (SLB), we present the first detailed investigation of this phenomenon by employing the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy assisted 2D single particle tracking (SPT) techniques. Analysis of the QCM-D-measured release kinetics made it possible to determine the binding strength of a single SV40-GM1 pair. The release dynamics of SV40, monitored by SPT, revealed that a notable fraction of SV40 becomes mobile just before the release, allowing to estimate the distribution of SV40-bound GM1 receptors just prior to release.