PAM Performance Analysis in Multicast-Enabled Wavelength-Routing Data Centers
Journal article, 2017
Multilevel pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM) is gaining momentum for high-capacity and power-efficient cloud computing. Compared to the classic on-off keying (OOK) modulation, high-order PAM yields better spectral efficiency but is also more susceptible to physical layer degradation effects. We develop a cross-layer analysis framework to examine the PAM transmission performance in data center network environments supporting both optical multicasting and wavelength routing. Our analysis is conducted on a switch architecture based on an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) core and distributed broadcast domains, exhibiting different physical paths, and random, uncontrolled crosstalk noise. Reed-Solomon coding with rate adaptation is incorporated into PAM transceivers to compensate for impairments. Our Monte Carlo simulations point to the significant impact of AWG crosstalk on higher order PAM in wavelength-reuse architectures and the importance of code rate adaptation for signals traversing multiple routing stages. According to our study, 8-PAM offers the highest effective bit rates for signals terminating in one broadcast domain and performs poorly when considering interdomain connectivity. On the other hand, the impairment-induced degradation of interdomain capacity for 4-PAM can be limited to 20.7%, making it better suited for connections spanning two broadcast domains and a crosstalk-rich stage. Our results call for software-defined PAM transceiver designs in support of both modulation order and code rate adaptation.
pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)
forward error correction (FEC)
bit error rate (BER)
Arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)