Pathway for the biosynthesis of the pigment chrysogine by Penicillium chrysogenum
Journal article, 2018

Chrysogine is a yellow pigment produced by Penicillium chrysogenum and other filamentous fungi. Although the pigment was first isolated in 1973, its biosynthetic pathway has so far not been resolved. Here, we show that deletion of the highly expressed nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene Pc21g12630 (chyA) resulted in a decrease in the production of chrysogine and 13 related compounds in the culture broth of P. chrysogenum. Each of the genes of the chyAcontaining gene cluster was individually deleted, and corresponding mutants were examined by metabolic profiling in order to elucidate their function. The data suggest that the NRPS ChyA mediates the condensation of anthranilic acid and alanine into the intermediate 2-(2-aminopropanamido)benzoic acid, which was verified by feeding experiments of a ΔchyA strain with the chemically synthesized product. The remainder of the pathway is highly branched, yielding at least 13 chrysogine-related compounds.


Annarita Viggiano

University of Groningen

O. Salo

University of Groningen

Hazrat Ali

National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Pakistan

University of Groningen

Wiktor Szymanski

University of Groningen

P. P. Lankhorst

DSM Biotechnology Centre

Yvonne Nygård

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Industrial Biotechnology

University of Groningen

R. A. L. Bovenberg

University of Groningen

DSM Biotechnology Centre

Arnold J.M. Driessen

University of Groningen

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

0099-2240 (ISSN) 1098-5336 (eISSN)

Vol. 84 4 e02246-17

Subject Categories

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology


Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)



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