Impact of sourdough fermentation on appetite and postprandial metabolic responses - a randomised cross-over trial with whole grain rye crispbread
Journal article, 2017
Sourdough fermentation is considered to have beneficial effects on postprandial satiety and metabolic responses, but studies demonstrating effects at physiological conditions are lacking. The aim of this acute breakfast intervention study was to determine the effect of consumption of sourdough-fermented and unfermented rye crispbread on self-rated appetite, postprandial glucose and insulin response in healthy subjects. In all, twenty-four Swedish adults were included in a single-blinded, randomised cross-over trial. Three crispbreads (sourdough-fermented and unfermented whole grain rye and yeast-fermented refined wheat as control) were consumed as part of a standardised breakfast. Subjective appetite score, assessed using visual analogue scale, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline and postprandially until 360 and 240 min, respectively. Structural changes and viscosity during mastication and gastric digestion were investigated using in vitro methods. Hunger and desire to eat were lower (P<005) based on AUC measurements after intake of sourdough-fermented rye crispbread compared with after intake of yeast-fermented refined wheat crispbread. On the basis of AUC (0-230 min), insulin response was lowest after intake of unfermented rye crispbread compared with sourdough-fermented rye and yeast-fermented refined wheat crispbread. Degradation of viscous fibres and faster bolus disintegration for the sourdough-fermented bread may partly explain the less favourable metabolic responses compared with unfermented bread. Our results showed that food processing affects the composition and structural characteristics of rye bread, which has implications for appetite and metabolic responses.