Copper relay path through the N-terminus of Wilson disease protein, ATP7B
Journal article, 2019

In human cells, copper (Cu) ions are transported by the cytoplasmic Cu chaperone Atox1 to the Wilson disease protein (ATP7B) in the Golgi for loading of Cu-dependent enzymes. ATP7B is a membrane-spanning protein which, in contrast to non-mammalian homologs, has six cytoplasmic metal-binding domains (MBDs). To address the reason for multiple MBDs, we introduced strategic mutations in which one, two or three MBDs had been blocked for Cu binding via cysteine-to-serine mutations (but all six MBDs are present in all) in a yeast system that probes Cu flow through Atox1 and ATP7B. The results, combined with earlier work, support a mechanistic model in which MBD1-3 forms a regulatory unit of ATP7B Cu transport. Cu delivery via Atox1 to this unit, followed by loading of Cu in MBD3, promotes release of inhibitory interactions. Whereas the Cu site in MBD4 can be mutated without a large effect, an intact Cu site in either MBD5 or MBD6 is required for Cu transport. All MBDs, expressed as single-domain proteins, can replace Atox1 and deliver Cu to full-length ATP7B. However, only MBD6 can deliver Cu to truncated ATP7B where all six MBDs are removed, suggesting a docking role for this structural unit


Kumaravel Ponnandai Schanmugavel

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Chemical Biology

Pernilla Wittung Stafshede

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Chemical Biology


1756-5901 (ISSN) 1756-591X (eISSN)

Vol. 11 9 1472-1480

Subject Categories

Environmental Health and Occupational Health





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