Solids Flow in Large-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Furnaces
Doctoral thesis, 2021
This thesis uses experimental campaigns and various modeling tools to elucidate the CFB solids flow. The experimental work is carried out in two cold units: a pseudo-2-dimensional unit that allows visual observation of the flow; and a 3-dimensional unit that can be operated under fluid-dynamical scaling, which has been shown to reflect accurately the solids flow in an existing reference >200-MWth CFB boiler. Furthermore, the data derived from the different sizes and operational ranges of these experimental units are linked to previous measurements of large-scale CFB combustion. Examinations of the solids back-mixing phenomena are supported by different modeling tools, including Direct Number Simulations, semi-empirical modeling through the Finite Volume Method, and Monte Carlo modeling.
The results of this work show that: (i) the presence/absence of a dense bottom bed affects the extent of solids entrainment from the bottom region; (ii) a fluid-dynamical region similar to the splash zone is established even in the absence of a dense bottom bed; (iii) the rate of solids back-mixing in the splash zone can be predicted from modeling of the gravity-driven ballistic trajectories; (iv) the solids back-mixing in the transport zone is governed by the transfer of solids through the core-wall layer boundary, which is driven by turbophoresis (i.e., the migration of particles in the direction of increasing particle concentration), and for which a Sherwood number-based expression is proposed that improves on the former empirical expressions; and (v) the solids back-flow effect at the riser exit cannot generally be neglected when predicting the in-furnace back-flow, and is substantial at gas velocities that are typical for commercial CFB boilers. Validated expressions are proposed for the decay coefficients of the splash and transport zones and the solids entrainment from the bottom region. Taking together this collected knowledge, this thesis improves the reliability of semi-empirical modeling tools for the prediction of the solids flow patterns in large-scale CFB furnaces for a wide range of operational conditions.
Circulating fluidized bed boilers
Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology, Energy Technology 2
Solids circulation in circulating fluidized beds with low riser aspect ratio and varying total solids inventory
Powder Technology,; Vol. 316(2017)p. 670-676
Bottom-bed fluid dynamics – Influence on solids entrainment
Fuel Processing Technology,; Vol. 173(2018)p. 112-118
Solids flow patterns in large-scale circulating fluidised bed boilers: Experimental evaluation under fluid-dynamically down-scaled conditions
Chemical Engineering Science,; Vol. 231(2021)
T. Djerf, D. Pallarès, F. Johnsson Fluid dynamics of the splash zone in large-scale circulating fluidized bed boilers
T. Djerf, D. Pallarès, F. Johnsson, G. Sardina, H. Ström Solids back-mixing in the transport zone of circulating fluidized bed boilers
Combustion in CFB furnaces involves several complex processes. Besides the reactions of the fuel and gas phase, it involves the flow of a large quantity of sand-like particles to smoothen the temperature field and ensure optimal combustion conditions throughout the furnace. To optimize the design and operation of CFB furnaces, a deeper understanding of particle flow is required, and should be implemented in modeling tools used by boiler manufacturing industries and operators.
This thesis studies the flow of particles in industrial-scale CFB furnaces through experiments in a down-scaled cold model designed to resemble the flow in an existing >200 MWth unit. This cold model bestows better measurement capabilities (higher spatial resolution with operational flexibility and direct measurement of the solids flow), enabling the acquisition of new knowledge. From this, new mathematical expressions of the solids flow in the furnace are proposed, making it possible to predict (without any need for site data) the solids flow in CFB furnaces over the entire size range of commercial units.
Modeling of large-scale circulating fluidized bed units
Valmet , 2014-01-01 -- 2016-12-31.
Areas of Advance
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie: 4978
Chalmers University of Technology
Digital presentation - Password: 575278
Opponent: Alberto Gómez-Barea, Chemical Engineering, University of Seville, Spain