Tuning of electrical conduction properties of natural fibers and TiO2 based flexible paper composite sheets by electrodeposition of metallic nanolayers
Journal article, 2021
In an era of modern smart technology, flexible electrodes are of great interest for different energy conversion as well as energy storage applications like solar cells, all solid-state batteries, and supercapacitors. Flexible metal oxide-based paper electrodes are advantageous in comparison to conventional electrodes due to their economical synthesis, biocompatibility, and environment-friendly characteristics. However, the electrical conductivity of paper electrodes is limited because of the insulating nature of natural fibers employed as a binder for the flexible matrix of metal oxides. The current study is an attempt to tune the electrical properties of lignocelluloses (natural fibers) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) based paper electrodes by facile electrodeposition technique. The crystalline parts (e.g., TiO2, Ag, and Au) of the prepared composite sheets were characterized by XRD analysis while the surface morphology was studied by SEM. FTIR was used to characterize the organic matter in LC fibers by identifying various molecular stretching and vibrational modes of C, H, and O-containing molecules. Electric permittivity was measured as a function of electric field frequency at room temperature which revealed the value of 23. 5 (at 1 kHz) for the sample LC/TiO2/Ag 9000s indicating the best charge storing capability of the sample. Impedance analysis was employed to identify various charge carrier mechanisms active in the sheets. It was found through impedance analysis that there is an active diffusion-controlled impedance mechanism of Au-coated samples causing an increased conductivity via the ionic diffusion. This diffusion-controlled conduction was modeled by the Warburg element. The enhanced conductivity due to ionic diffusion makes these samples more useful as electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements of the electrodeposited samples established the increase in conductive properties and efficient kinetics of LC/TiO2 paper sheets. The current study suggests that Ag and Au-coated paper electrodes can be potential candidates for energy conversion and storage applications.