Electric bike level of service: A review and research agenda
Review article, 2021

With the emerging demand for electric bikes (e-bikes), the design of sustainable mobility infrastructure should account for the level-of-service (LOS) of e-bikes. However, knowledge about e-bike LOS (ELOS) is scarce. We review recent advancements in hindrance-based approaches and microsimulation models to provide insights into the development of ELOS measures for off-road facilities. We discuss challenges associated with the data collection and existing LOS estimation approaches, all of which help shape future research agendas to develop the ELOS index. Our review suggests that future hindrance-based studies should focus on quantifying relative discomfort generated due to passing and meeting encounters. Similarly, future microsimulation-based LOS studies should improve the physical model to mimic meeting event frequencies and develop models for the homogeneous flow of e-bikes. These findings are crucial to integrating hindrance-based and microsimulation approaches in developing the ELOS index, an essential metric for the ex-ante and ex-post evaluation of off-road facilities.


sustainable mobility



electric bike



Khashayar Kazemzadeh

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Physical Resource Theory, Physical Resource Theory 2

Prateek Bansal

National University of Singapore (NUS)

Sustainable Cities and Society

2210-6707 (ISSN)

Vol. 75 103413

Subject Categories

Transport Systems and Logistics

Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified

Other Civil Engineering



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